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the cotyledons remain within the seed and serve to digest the food in the female gametophyte and absorb it into the developing embryo.Conifer cotyledons typically emerge from the seed and become photosynthetic.These forests grow in regions where year-round rainfall is high and steady and frost is rare.The main areas of its occurrence are in South America; eastern Australia; southern China, Korea, and Japan; small areas of southeastern North America and southern Africa; and all of New Zealand.Robert Brown first distinguished gymnosperms from angiosperms in 1825.While older classifications considered all seed plants to be assignable to a single division, Spermatophyta, more-recent classifications recognize that the characteristic of naked seeds is not important enough to be used to tie all plants with that feature into one group.Classification of gymnosperms now recognizes four extant divisions.conifers, members of the division Pinophyta are among the most diverse of the gymnosperms, with some 630 living species across six families.Some of the oldest living things on Earth are conifers, including several megastrobilus, is more complex than the microstrobilus.

The remaining megaspore undergoes mitosis to form the female gametophyte.

Gymnosperm, any vascular plant that reproduces by means of an exposed seed, or ovule—unlike angiosperms, or flowering plants, whose seeds are enclosed by mature ovaries, or fruits.

The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally “naked seeds”) are borne in cones and are not visible until maturity.

Although since the Cretaceous Period (about 145 million to 66 million years ago) gymnosperms have been gradually displaced by the more recently evolved ).

Temperate broad-leaved forests, sometimes called temperate rainforests, are dominated by evergreen vegetation.

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